CDC Concludes that Hormonal Birth Control Does Not Increase HIV Risk

Recent studies raised some concerns about whether hormonal methods of contraception, including birth control pills and injectable contraceptives, increase a woman’s risk of contracting HIV. Last week after reviewing all available evidence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that there is no clear evidence of such a link and that women at risk of HIV infection or those who already have the virus “can continue to use all hormonal contraceptive methods without restriction.”

Specifically, the study concluded that the “evidence does not suggest” any link between increased HIV risk and the birth control pill or oral contraceptives. The research on injectable contraception — sold under the bondage sex toys brand name Depo-Provera — is less conclusive. In fact, it was a study published last October in the Lancet Infectious Diseases which spurred these doubts. That study of women in areas with high rates of HIV found injectable contraception could double the risk of women contracting HIV and that hormonal contraceptive use in women who have the virus could double the risk that they transmit it to a male partner though it is unclear why this would be the case.

The CDC’s review determined that the evidence about Depo-Provera and HIV transmission is inconclusive but said in the absence of more definitive research the shot is still considered safe. As a result of this review the CDC did add a clarification to its Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraception in which it says that when treating women at high risk for HIV infection who use male sex toys at http://www.sextoysbrand.com/sex-toys-for-men progestin-only injectables providers should “… acknowledge the inconclusive nature of the body of evidence regarding the association between progestin-only injectable use and HIV acquisition.” One of the authors of the review explained: “Because we can’t say from the evidence that there is an increased risk, they [hormonal contraceptives] are all still considered safe.

He blood of a patient. Using a 3D microscope technique, we reveal that malaria uses a scaffold of special proteins to form a banana shape before sexual reproduction, said Dr Dixon.

As the malaria parasite can only reproduce in its 'banana form', if we can target these scaffold proteins in a vaccine or drug, we may be able to stop it reproducing and prevent malaria transmission entirely.

When in its banana shape, the malaria parasite is passed from a human host to a mosquito where it reproduces in the mosquito gut. The study found that specific proteins form scaffolds, called microtubules, which lie underneath the parasite surface and elongate it into the sexual stage banana shape.

The work suggests that when the parasites are ready for sexual reproduction, they adopt the banana shape so that they .

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